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BR  BRAZIL
Iguassu Falls
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Itaipu Dam
Macuco Boat Trip
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AR  ARGENTINA
Iguassu Falls
National Park
Boat Trip and Safari
Jesuit Missions
Puerto Iguazu town
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PY  PARAGUAY
Bertoni Museum
Jesuit Missions
Itaipu Dam
Museum and Zoo
Ciudad del Este city
Other Attractions
Natives
Mar, 20/2019
04:01am
(GMT -3)

Curiosities

About Brazil 
Brazilian Barbecue
Brazilian Music
Brazil in numbers
Natives in Brazil
Taxes in Brazil
Population in Brazil
 
Brazilian Barbecue
click to enlargeBrazilians were the first South Americans to raise cattle, which they imported from Cape Verde in the 1530s. Churrasco (pronounced shoo-ras-koo) is the Brazilian word for barbecue and it was the traditional food of the Gauchos or cowboys of Southern Brazil for centuries before it achieved popularity in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo.

Over the years, it has become very fashionable and there are excellent Churrascarias (restaurants specializing in Brazilian barbecue) all over Brazil and around the World. They are called churrascaria de rodizio because waiters move from table to table offering different kinds of meats on long skewers from which they slice portions onto your plate.

The meat was originally cooked over coals, usually in a pit dug in the ground, skewered on metal spits. The only seasoning was coarse salt and each gaucho had his own churrasco knife, which he used to cut pieces of meat from the spit. People in southern Brazil have churrasco pits built in their backyards with bricks or incorporated into a wall with decorative tiles around the edges. 

Almost any occasion can be celebrated with a churrasco: birthdays, christenings, political rallies, or even a simple weekend get-together with family and friends. Over the years, the churrasco has evolved into an elaborate meal, with different salads, sauces and farofa accompanying the meats. The meal usually starts with with cocktails called caipirinhas and an appetizer of pieces of sausage that one skewers on toothpicks and it ends with milk pudding (Brazilian Style Flan) or torta de banana (Brazilian style banana pie).

The meats used in churasscos are most often Brazilian sausages, different cuts of beef, pork tenderloin and chicken. In the United States, chourisso or a spicy pork sausage, T-bone steaks and sirloin strips, chicken thighs and drumsticks, and pork chops are used. Often potato salad with carrots and chayote, tomato salad with heart of palm, onion salad with oregano, fried manioc root, farofa and molho a campanha (Brazilian-style vinegrette) are served with the meats in Brazil.

White meats are marinated overnight in a mixture of garlic, salt and lime juice. The red meats are seasoned with coarse sea salt only. There are two traditional methods for doing this. The most effective one: press a good amount of salt into the sides of the meat and once the meat is cooked, knock it off with the side of a large knife, or baste the meat with salt water using a bunch of parsley or bay leaves as a brush. You may want to try a recipe for pork short ribs marinated in red wine and barbecued with farinha de manioc. Delicious!!
 
Brazilian Music
click to enlargeBrazilian Hour - Radio Show is produced by the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs to promote the best of Brazilian music and culture all around the world. To listen to the music, click here.
 
Brazil in numbers
BRAZIL
Capital: Brasilia
15°47′S 47°52′W
Official language Portuguese
Ethnic groups (2010 est.)
47.7% White, 43.1% Pardo, 7.6% Black, 1.09% Asian, 0.43% Natives
Religions: Roman Catholic 64.6%, other Catholic 0.4%, Believers 22.2% (includes Adventist 6.5%), Assembly of God 2.0%, Christian Congregation of Brazil 1.2%, Universal Kingdom of God 1.0%, other Protestant 11.5%), other Christian 0.7%, Spiritualist 2.2%, other 1.4%, none 8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Population: 2015 estimate 206 million (6th most populated country in the world)
Active workers: estimate in 2013 46,7% out of 96 million that are able to work
Informality on work force still very high. Some laws are from 1943 and laws were brought from Italian Fascists during the Getulio Vargas presidency
Informality in goods can reach 30% in some areas
Density: 23.8/sq (190th) 62/sq mi
Birth rate: 14.46 births/1,000 population (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 136
Death rate: 6.58 deaths/1,000 population (2015 est.) country comparison to the world: 144
Fertility rate: 1,72 children per woman
Presidential
Republic Democracy
Citizen: Brazilian
1500 Portuguese claimed the land
1822 Independence day September 7
1889 Republic day November 15
1930 until 1945 Getulio VARGAS dictatorship
1964 Military took office on a dictatorship
1985 Democratic government was restored and corruption from that time until present days increased
2014 Brazil hosted the world cup
2016 Brazil hosted the Olympic Games
Brazil was seen as one of the emerging markets and still has a good potential
Class casts in Brazil are far apart and 50 million are poor (it is difficult to know how many people are in miserable conditions)
Politics: number senators 81 and number of deputies 513
Number of public employees: 3,12 million (1,6% of the population)
Number federal public employees: 2 million
Number of the Army, Air force and Navy men: 327.000 (17 position in the world)
Current constitution 5th October 1988 was made to help politicians steal public money and help also criminals to stay out of the prison
Area 8,515,767 square km (5th biggest country in the world) 3,287,597 sq mi, the Richest country in natural resources
Water shield (%) 0.65
Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean
South America, Largest country
Urban population: 85.7% of total population (2015), rate of urbanization: 1.17% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.
Land boundaries: total: 16,145 km
Coastline: 7,491 km
Exclusive economic zone in the sea: 200 nautical miles
Continental shelf: 200 nautical miles or to edge of the continental margin
Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south
Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt
Elevation: mean elevation: 320 m
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Pico da Neblina 2,994 m
Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron, ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, rare earth elements, uranium, petroleum, hydro-power, timber, precious stones, granite
Land use: agricultural land: 32.9%
Arable land 8.6%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 23.5%; forest: 61.9%; other: 5.2% (2011 estimation)
Irrigated land: 54,000 square km (2012)
Total renewable water resources: 8,233 cubic meter km (2011)
Fresh water shield: 14% of the world
Debt to GDP ratio 70%
GDP (PPP) 2016 estimate
Total US $3.208 trillion (7th place)
Per capita $15,690 (77th place)
GDP (nominal) 2016 estimate
Total $1.8 trillion (9th place) 2015
Per capita $8,650 [6] (69th place) 2015
Gini coefficient (2012) 51.9 (7)
HDI (2014) 0.755 (8)
Currency Real (R$) (BRL)
Time zone BRT (UTC−2 to −5)
Summer (DST) BRST (UTC−2 to −5)
Calling code +55
ISO 3166 code BR
Internet TLD .br
Multiracial country

ENERGY
80% of the electrical energy production in Brazil it is Eco-friendly
Energy production source in 2017
Gravity (hydro power plants) 62%
Natural gas 11%
Biomass 7%
Petrol 4%
Wind mills 12%
Charcoal 2%
Nuclear 2%

ECONOMY
Brazil is the 9º largest economy by nominal GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT - GDP
Inflation in 2017 by government in 2017 was 2.95%
Inflation in 2017 by Getulio Vargas University was 3,23%
Gross Domestic Product in 2017 was 1%

EXPORT
Main exported products of Brazil in 2015
Ores (minerals), Precious Stones, niobium (NB), Oil Seeds, Oil and Mineral Fuels, Meat, Industrial Machinery, Motor Vehicles and Parts, Sugar and Confectionery, Iron and Steel, Animal Feeds, Coffee and Spices. 46,2% of the export products from Brazil are regarding aggro-business Soybean in the first place fallowed on meat, chicken was exported to 165 different countries, paper pulp also in large quantity. Orange juice: 5 out of 10 cups consumed in the world are produced in Brazil.

Iron ore, cast iron 16,3%
Crude oil: 8,4%
Soy bean products: 6,4%
Sugar from cane: 4,5%
Coffee: 3,1%
Chicken meat: 2,8%
Soybean meal: 2,2%
Paper pulp: 1,9%
Manufactured products on iron and steel: 1,8%
Cars: 1,7%
Cattle meat: 1,6%
Car parts: 1,6%
Planes: 1,5%
Fuel oil: 1,5%

Main countries that Brazil EXPORT in USD $ and volume
China US $40 billion 18%
United States US $27 billion 12%
Argentina US $14 billion 6,3%
Netherlands US $13 billion 5,7%
Japan US $6,5 billion
Germany US $6,5 billion
Chile US $5 billion
India US $4,7 billion
Venezuela US $4,6 billion
Italy US $4 billion

IMPORT
Main products that Brazil IMPORT
Oil & Mineral Fuels, Industrial Machinery, Electrical Machinery, Motor Vehicles and Parts, Organic Chemicals, Plastics, Fertilizers, Pharmaceuticals, Precision Instruments, Chemical Products.

Main countries that Brazil IMPORT in USD $ and percentage
China US $37 billion 16.30%
United States US $35 billion 15.41%
Argentina US $14 billion 6.17%
Germany US $13,8 billion 6.04%
Nigeria US $9,5 billion 4.15%
South Korea US $8,5 billion 3.72%
India US $6,6 billion
Italy US $6,3 billion
Japan US $5,9 billion
France US $5,7 billion

Brazil: Trade Statistics
Exporter Rank
23/ in 136 countries
Importer Rank
21/136 in 136 countries

POVERTY and CORRUPTION
In Brazil corruption persists and helps to generate poverty that leads to a vicious circle.
Politicians in Brazil can stay as a deputy or senator per life if reelected every 4 years.
Number of cities with city council: 5570 (vicious party)Deputies blackmail city councils for votes. Some cities are using 90% of the revenues to pay salaries and got no money for investments in infrastructure, health and education.
Minimum salary in Brazil is approximately US $320.00 (2017)
High federal salaries and pensions for life made the government pension system to collapse. Some government people can accumulate 3 pensions
Slavery was banned in 1888 but there are still slavery in remote areas
Corruption perceptions index global wide 2018: position of the country 79
Illiteracy on adults: Brazil is 8 in global ranking (14 million people in 2015)
40% of the children from 0 to 14 years old live in poor conditions
Gini coefficient index (2012) 51.9 (7)
10% of the population receiving 42% of the nation´s income
56% of the population receiving 56.8% of the nation´s income
34% of the population receiving 1.2% of the nation´s income
Unemployment: around 13%
3 million of Brazilians got no electricity
School: according to UNESCO 2 million children are out of school (no enough schools in the country)

Healthy Sector
42% of the houses have sewage system (2017)
85% of the houses have running water (2017)
82% of the houses have garbage collecting service (2017)

PROFESSIONS IN BRAZIL
Why some people do not learn a new profession?
In some places vocational schools are empty, as it is more favorable to obtain benefits from the government, since the minimum wage is very low.

HOW ARE THE ELECTIONS IN BRAZIL?
The continuation of poverty is very present in the country. The more children a poor family has, the more benefits they get from the government. This increases the number of poor because they stop working and have more children to get more benefits. Some politicians provide support to these people to gain benefits and in return receive votes by perpetuating themselves in power.
Invasions in building and land are organised by some people to get support later during elections.
Summary: Poverty keeps many politicians in power.

What people receive for votes?
People sell their votes for money or benefits. Everything is controlled by some people that work as a kind of electoral manager (cabo eleitoral) who during the elections sell their services for politicians. They receive money from the candidates and using part of the money to pay the voters. The more people the election manager has, the more money he makes during the election. Millions are used to pay people weeks before the elections and those who pay are the electoral managers (cabo eleitoral).

Government in power always denied that people are selling their votes. Judges that control the elections in majorities belong to groups and need to obey.

The media is also much in demand during the elections in exchange for favors and money. Everything is negotiated in advance. Many TV stations, newspapers and radio stations belong to politicians.

Right, left, or center political groups use the same tactics.

Drug dealers also use their money to support politicians in power and get help when they need.

What honest people do in Brazil!
Only pray at churches or at home. They keep complaining and don´t get involved in politics. Result of all this is that bad people are in power.
 
Natives in Brazil
Natives in Brazil by IBGE based on the 2010 census
- around 900.000 natives live in Brazil, 04% of the Brazilian population
- 305 ethnics groups
- 274 languages
- 690 territories were recognised by government
- 13,7% of the Brazilian territory belong to natives
- 94 thousand square km it is the biggest reservation in Amazon
- more than 50 groups still live in Amazon and never been in touch with white people
- many natives lost their land for the government that gave to companies that sold to the settlers.
- some settlers and ranchers invade part of their land because they had no papers stating borders or property ownership.
- lots of natives ended in reservations arranged by the government and some of them were not big enough.
- some natives that moved to the cities are coming back to the origin places and trying to claim their land back.
- the population of natives that stay near urban areas are decreasing.
- the population that stay in the country side are increasing.

In the last 20 years lot´s of natives were fighting and dying for their land.
Only 57,7% of the natives have officially land titles (property papers).
In Brazil, lots of tribes are at the courts claiming for their land rights.

Where natives live in Brazil?
- 37,4% North
- 25,5% Northeast
- 16% Centre west
- 12% Southeast
- 9,2% South

In some municipalities it is possible to find natives that speak 3 different languages.

70% of natives that live in the reservations (own the land) and speak native languages.

Only few natives that live near cities are still able to speak native languages.

Fecundity rate for native women in the country side it is higher than in the cities.

Some of the things that Europeans brought to the natives: smallpox, diphtheria, measles, influenza, bubonic plague or black dead, cholera, scarlet fever, cupping cough, respiratory infection and venereal diseases.
 
Taxes in Brazil
TAXES IN BRAZIL

The second country with the highest amount of taxes in the world

In Brazil there are more than 80 different kinds of taxes

70% collected comes from consumption of goods

Income tax varies from 15% to 27.5%

PERCENTAGE OF TAXES ON SOME PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

Medicine 36%
Energy 45,81%
Phone 47,87%
Gas - Petrol 57,03%
Cigarette 81,68%
Cars 40%

BASIC FOOD
Cattle meat 18,63%
Chicken 17,91%
Fish 18,02%
Salt 29,48%
Rice 18,00%
Soy been oil 37,18%
Wheat flour 34,47%
Bean 18,00%
Sugar 40,40%
Milk 33,63%
Coffee 36,52%
Spaghetti 35,20%
Margarine 37,18%
Tomato sauce 36,66%
Biscuit 38,50%
Chocolate 32,00%
Egg 21,79%
Fruits 22,98%
Ethanol 43,28%
Detergent 40,50%
Washing powder 42,27%
Disinfectant 37,84%
Sanitary water 37,84%
Steel sponge 44,35%

BASIC HYGIENE PRODUCTS
Soap 42%
Shampoo 52,35%
Conditioner 47,01%
Deodorant 47,25%
Toilet paper 40,50%
Dental creme 42,00%

SCHOOL SUPPLIES
Pen 48,69%
Pencil 36,19%
Eraser 44,39%
Case 41,53%
Plastic pastes 41,17%
Agenda 44,39%
Office paper 38,97%
Books 13,18%
Paper 38,97%

DRINKS
Powder refreshment 38,32%
Juice 37,84%
Water 45,11%
Beer 56,00%
Sugar cane liquor 83,07%
Soft drink 47,00%

HOUSE
TV set 45%
Dryer machine 48%
Shoes 37,37%
Cloths 37,84%
Computer 38,00%
Cell Phone 41,00%
Fan 43,16%
Blender 47,06%
Microwave 56,99%
Brick 34,23%
Roof Tile 34,47%
Furniture 37,56%
Paint 45,77%
Popular house 49,02%

Imported luxury goods 59 to 100%

BEYOND ALL TAXES 30% OF THE POPULATION PAY FOR:
- PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE (36% tax on it)
- PRIVATE SCHOOL FOR CHILDREN (37% tax on it)

Public spending on health accounts is around 3.6% of GDP (2013), If combined with family spending and private health insurance, it reaches 8% of GDP.

For more information about taxes check this link: http://www.fiepr.org.br/sombradoimposto/
 
Population in Brazil
Population in South America is approximately 420,936,000 inhabitants
1 Brazil 207,739,000 (2017)
2 Colombia 49,262,000 (2017)
3 Argentina 43,590,368 (2016)
4 Peru 31,488,625 (2016)
5 Venezuela 31,028,637 (2016)
6 Chile 18,191,884 (2016)
7 Ecuador 16,784,400 (2017)
8 Bolivia 10,985,059 (2016)
9 Paraguay 6,854,536 (2016)
10 Uruguay 3,480,222 (2016)
11 Guyana 747,884 (2012)
12 Suriname 541,638 (2012)
13 French Guiana 239,648 (2012)
14 Falkland Islands (UK) 2,563 (2012


Iguassu Falls - a little flood in April 28, 2007A little more

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